DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK
YELLOWSTONE PARK, WYO.
OF THE SUPERINTENDENT
\ r c h f
1 9 2 u.
TABLE 0? C0OT3SJTS.
I, General Conditions i
II, Personnel 3
III, Work Completed 6
IV, Work in Progress 6
V. Work Begun. 7
VI, Plans or Proposed Work 7
VII, Policies 7
VIII, Cost of Operation.. 7
IX, Other Hatters of Interest.... 8
Wild Animals 8
Arrests & Violations of Law 12
Accidents and Casualties,.. 12
Special Visitors 12
Motion Pictures 13
Miscellaneous . , 13
X, Receipts and Remittances 13
C . a . L .
FICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK
YELLOWSTONE PARK. WYO.
April 9 t 1920.
The following is ny report on conditions in Yellow-
stone National Parte, and on the operation of the pane, for
the month of :iarch, 1920:
The most remarkable feature of the month* s weather
was the cold wave of the 5th-6th, with a minimum temperature
of 25 degrees beloer sero on the morning of the 6th. This is
the lowest liaroh temperature on record daring 36 years; the
previous lowest, -£4 degrees, was recorded in 1906* The
temperature as a whole averaged 3 degrees below normal*
The tots! snowfall was 20,0 inches, equal to 1 # 95
inches of water, or a little sore snow than for the average
March, but a deficiency of ,23 inches of water* There were
17 days with a measurable amount of snowfall, and the record
shows but one March with a greater number of days with snow,
that being 18 days in 1907. The depth of snow on the ground
at the end of the month, 18,6 inches, is the greatest in the
March record except 24*5 inches in 1917.
The total wind movement was slightly below Wf zm*,
but the maximum velocity of 40 miles per hour recorded on the
30th has been exceeded but once in March, but it has been
equaled three tiroes.
The sunshine was deficient, being only 46;? of
The monthly Meteorological swnary, furnished by
the local U. S. leather Bureau, is inclosed.
As a whole, the weather conditions that prevailed
throughout the month were not favorable to the wild aninals,
and the feeding of hay had to be kept up throughout the month.
The following shows the depth of snow at various
stations in the park at the en& of -arch. For comparison,
column 2 gives the de th of sno.v at some of the stations
en January 31, and eoltna 3 gives the esse data for March 21,
1917, a season that waa late and when there waa much diffi-
culty in opening the roads in tirae for the beginning of the
tourist season. It will be seen that the depth of snow in-
oreaaed remarkably between January 51 and Uaroh 31, bat it
happened that several inches of this fell daring the last
days in Uareh and waa quite light when it waa measured, and
this has settled a lot sinee the end of i'aroh. These figures
indicate that the opening of the roads for tourist travel bob/
be expensive and difficult, although this depends largely
the eendltions in pril;
LflJa Hanger Station
Snake liver Hanger station
Sylvan aa» Ranger Station
Soda Batte Ranger Station
lower Falls Hanger Station
Canyon Ranger station
Harris Ranger Station
Upper Basin Ranger station
Riverside Hajsjer Station
Gallatin Ranger Station
Gardiner Banger Station -tf
The road from Gardiner to Headquarters waa open for
motor travel throughout the zaonth, and the road from Head-
quarters to the northeast earner (Cootas City entrance) was
open for pasaage of light vehicles dream by horses throughout
the month. Otherwise the roads were blociced wltfc snow to an
extent that they could not be used and travel waa practicable
only on tikis or snowshoes. Kloven people entered the parte
at the northern entrance, but these were principally en
business to Mammoth and could hardly be classed as tourists*
The Chief Banker's travel report is inclosed herewith.
A few laborers and carpenters required by the
Transportation Company and the Camps Company were secured in
the immediate vioinity at the same wages as paid last year.
About the only supplies needed was bay <*? feedlas?
wild animals, which was delivered under a previous contract
from Yakima, * ashix*arton, oo sting for baled alfalfa hay of
first ouality 3U21 par ton delivered at Gardiner, I£ontana«
Also a carload of oo&l for general use at Headquarters, which
was purchased uader circular proposal for i$.35 par ton at
the miss at Brldgar, Montana* which the bidder stated was
sold at a loss to him, hat was the price fixed by the Owvera-
On Eareh 1st there were 55 smployees on duty trader
this office in the park, and no ehaqge in number was naade
during the month of &aroh. Below is given a Hat of the naraber
of employees serving under appointment • with a general sta te-
nant of the Kind of work pertained by each class:
Jfc SXSMx Bnfl Of *QT% PtrftFWi»
1 Aast* £a&lneer Office eiglneesripg.
1 Blacksmith General blaokanith work* Shoe-
trig draft animals asd rather
saddle horses, said aver heal ing
tools and equipment.
5 Clerics 1 disbursing agent and pur-
chasing clerk; 1 on orders, pro-
posals and vouchers; 1 stenogra-
pher, files and revenues; 1 on
payrolls end ttoekaeplog; 1 en
cost accounting and in charge
of storehouse* At edd aemnts
clerks assisted Kasger Skinner
in indaxiJg library, and tabu-
lating notes on wild aclasis,
birds, and other data relating
to the establishment of the pro-
In charge of all transportation
including shops and garage*
1 in charge of power plant who
operated and did necessary line
workf £ assi stents who operated
regular shifts including Sundays.
Steward and faster
Ho . Class *
1 Buffalo Keeper
1 Asst. Bflo* Keeper
In charge of tazae buffalo hard,
feeding and earing for then,
iatant to Buffalo Xeeper.
In charge of stables, and spent
iaost of nonth In shop repairing tents aaad
harness for next eeasen f s wortc.
In charge construction work*
oriaad ell month repairing and
remodeling buildings at Head-
vorked in storehouse issuing supplied
to families and rangers, corrals, etc.,
and sorting oror, asking and straight-
ening up storehouses*
In charge ef telephone system* did emer-
gency work and installed instruments.
Also ran light truck hauling freight
or eotares3 fro* Railroad to Headquarters
when net otherwise
1 Master Mechanic
1 Attonobile Mechanic
I F lumber
1 l?eleigraph Operator
1 telephone Operator
Watchman at Headquarters. Made hourly
patrols for fire at night 9 and leapt
fires up and cleaned up Headquarters
building, worked dally including Sun-
On regular annual leave of absence.
Worked on autacaobila and track repairs.
In charge of general plumbing at Head-
Eesovatcd employees quarters at Head-
Sent and received v, estera Union tele-
grarasj also put in regular shift as a
switchboard operator, seren days a week.
Operated telephone switchboard.
Miscellaneous work at headquarters.
On leave Z (noon) to 51 (noon).
1 Chief Ranker
la oharge of ranger force
3 Ant. Chief Happen
ssisting Chief Raider. <
One In charge
of southern dletrlet; two assisting
with feeding wild animals,
6 let elaes park rangers In charge of ranger stations* on duty
In Chief Bangor f e Office, patrol duty
In the park protecting wild animals,
and feeding wild animals.
18 Park Hangers Ditto. ileo one on
duty, protecting wild anlnals In Gallatin
Game Reserve adjoining the park on
In addition to the regular employee* listed above,
the fallowing were employed temporarily!
Bngiacnsn, assisting with repairs
to motor Tehiclee,
Teamster, general work at Head-
quarters, In stables, hauling
fcwTi ■ gr
During .arch annaal leaves were granted as follows t
!• J. lness, park ranger, 1st to 6th; 6 days*
£• Ls Stinnett, master mechanic, 1st to 22nd; 19 days.
W# Madison, laborer, 3 (noon) to 31 (noon); 24 days.
. i Burney, -sst# engineer, 1st to 13th; 12 days*
L. M. Mac Rae, Clerk, 1st to 9th; 6 days*
. :i. Edwin, Clerk, 15th to 27th; II days.
!• H# Pendell, Clerk, 16th to 20th; 5 days.
C. 0. Lauer, Clerk, 6th and 13th; 2 days,
a. P. Dustman, Park Ranger, 27th to 51st; 4 days.
Chester a. Lindsley, Assistant Supt., 27th be 31st; 4 days*
B. L# Stinnett, Master Mechanic, (without pay) 23rd to 31st; 9 days.
John Delrcar, Steward & Master of £ran*>ortation,
v 1690 per annum, effective March 16, 1920, terminating temporary
appointment in same camacity.
flhere were no separations from the service durli^
1 Assistant Chief Raider.
III. WORK GQHftJKED.
(a) gtanarMttm trf f hvilml
Inasmuch as everything was on a winter basis, at
construction work was engaged in daring the month.
(b) ^V^TTHM! and liooair of ihyalaal Tw T fflf m Mtf
the only work dona on ths roads daring tho month
was slight repaire on tba Mamma th-Oardiner road, clearing
out fallan rooks and draining off watar from malting snows.
(o) IffiCTTOTffnlff tiY QftflQftiitofltri-
No improvements wara completed hy eonoass lonsrs
daring tha month, and tat little was in progress.
(d) siolaft M jhfc£afeUt«
Due to the fact that there wara no visitors of any
consequence, this feature was unimportant.
XT. WOEUC XI FB0RRBS8,
Mr. Is H. Hiohols, of tha Yellowatone Park: iJrans-
portation Con mxy. rial tad tha parte and brought with him a
foreman mechanic on March 6th 9 and em March 16th eeveral
mechanics began worlc for this ooa uwy, moving their autonobile
repair m\op to new quarters and beginning tha work of over-
hauling motor vehicle s on a Urge scale. This work is still
In progress and will be until the opening of the park season.
?he Yellowstone ± ark Hotel Compaq? aid nothing
oept to get in a few carloads of coal for next Banner's use.
She Yellowstone < ark Gamps Company also increased
its force at Mammoth Camp, the latter part of arch, and have
several man engaged in making improvements in the cesrp, tear-
ing down the present tents, dhieh are to be moved to the Lake
Gamp, which will be rebuilt this spring, and replacing than
with new tents with asbestos tops, and rearranging them to
conform to a general plan for a new camp at
Oar shop force was engaged in overhauling trucks
and motor oars, keeping in repair those in use for hauling'
hay for elk which was quite en item, as the roads were ted
and the work was hard on the trucks. The work in the shops
was handicapped again by the absence of the shop foreman and
one of the mechanics much of the time on account of sickness.
?he stable foreman finished overhauling the harness,
and has since been engaged in repairing tents for use in the
construction woife in the park* He has made good progress, y
bat there is maeh of this m*fk yet to be accomplished,
▼. ;qrk BSOOH.
Ho new work was begun durlqr the month, exaert the
re >airs of a small frame house at Headquarters to furnish
quarters for employees. A snail addition is being built to
house a bath tub and toilet which are being: put in by regular
employees with but very little additional cost for supplies
which were not already on hand. Dhie wortc is still in progress.
?!• FLAH8 Git ^ROPOSKD WOBK.
In addition to continuing the work in progress as
noted above, it is proposed during April to engage a nail
crew and send an engineer and foreman to take charge, to build
a timber and stone crib to protect a bridge across Elk Fork I
In the East Forest Reserve against high water. ?his work is
provided for by a special deficiency appropriation of ^-3000,
and it seems desirable to get it done before high water which
night destroy the abutments of the bridge* She details of
hew this work Is to be accomplished are new being worked out*
Ho new policies were adopted during the month.
▼III. COST OP QPSRA2IQV*
2he operating costs consisted principally of
salaries of regular employees and the costs incident to feed-
ing the wild animals, as are shown on the cost reports for
March. Shese reports are being mailed to Superintendent
Albright at Berkeley, California, for his perusal before they
ere transmitted to the Service.
$he ranger force made regular patrols for protection
of wild animals, patrolled the gams preserve in the State of
Men tana located west of the Yellowstone Hirer outside of the
park in the Gallatin Forest, and assisted in the care of the
buffalo herd. Uheir principal and most important work, hew-
ever, consisted to the special core an* foodie of the aUc,
deer, antelope and mountain sheep near the northern entrance
of the iwlq disposing of tho»e that died* aapertntendUav
the capture of those elk that Tiers skipped to other par
and rarest and feeding the surplus horse* now being wintered
en hay at Headquarter* ♦ Gonaiderrible tima waa alee devoted
by the ranger farce assisting the renressatative of the
Chee tar-Oat ing Manring Picture Company of 3?ejr Yoi»fr in ftttt)
pietrarea of wild animals and the tane buffalo in the vicinity
Assistant Chief Ranger Smith has been in charge of
the special work a* Gardiner aiaee r&rch 20th#
Ranger Sfctaaer made good progreaa in hla worfc of
collecting data for our library and lauseam, and waa assisted
in cataloguing and transcribing of his noted m aniroals and
birds lag clerics in the off iee when their services could be
spared from other wor&#
fhe buffalo loaepcr and hia assistant were engaged
in earing for the tsone buffalo herd at the baffalo farm and
on Slough CreeSu '£he hay supply wae exhausted on Slough
Orotic oa ttartih 25th, and wit* the help of fire ranger a* the
steers and balls of the hard that had been fed there were
brought in to Headquarters where hap is being fed to ear~7 them
through the winter*
IX* QSmR UttffiBS OF OTBSBKS^
Wild yalmla *
lie the weather which was a lightly more severe
than normal in $areh was not especial^* encouraging in vies?
of the run derail condition of onr aatms&a, we were able to con-
tinue the feeding of hay to the elJc* dear, antelope and
mountain aheep in the immediate vicinity of Keadqoarters and
Gardiner, and the situation has not as yet become serious.
If^wam weather ooaes by the middle of the m^tth so the
aafcoals can get subsistence ffeta the raa^e, the less will
net be great, and since IgHS 1st the conditions hare been
During March 185 tons of hay were fed near Gardiner
to about 2000 elk, 250 antelope, 300 deer, and 11 mountain
sheep* At Eeadquartera 31 tone were fed to about 000 el& and
50 deer. Aa will be noted, the nanfcer rcuainisg on the feed
grounds at Headquarters waa abtrat the saiss as for February,
but at Gardiner it was only about half the eame namber, as
of the stronger animals went hade to the hilla and did
net eoraa down again.
fluff alft» * llM £££&• £here »ore no report* are
ceived of wild buffalo during tslie oonth, and their raqge
not vi sited*
laffalo* - Jfiffift £§£&» Slioro wre 40? aninals la
this herd on March let, and there nee one yaarliqg ball found.
dead at the mouth of Blaeitail Deer Creek on Tellowctone
Biver during* the month, lowing a total of 4d$ at present,
The body and skin were so badly smiled fy* oeyotes as to be
worthless. She coes in the laain herd are sho^i?^ eigne of
ealriEff MMi rhia herd isi'as divided and art of the© fed at
the buffalo farm and part at Slough Creek until ifereh 25th,
when the hay was all gone at Slocgfc Oreefc, and the aaimals
that had been fed there were tak*n to the farm, where the
herd was a&oln divided, sad 127 of the balls and steers were
brought to Headquarters where hay that wae in storage for
other worfc has einee been fed, Jhls step was necessary i*
order to hare the supply of hay at the farm hold oat for the
cows and yourif animals which are still boiag fed there* Inhere
are new 225 animals at the farm, and the balance of the herd -
a few eld Mile - are scattered in various places, naraely
7 bolls at Uower Falls, 6 on Slough Greo&, 15 &lo^» the Yellow-
stone River, 3 en Lamar River, and the bal&nee am mostly along
the road between Headquarters and the far*. Sane of these
were left daring the drive to Mnaaoth, which took tee days
dae to deep snour, took the services of the deeper and f5vc
rangers, sad proved to be a isost ardnour taa&. One horse
had to be killed on account of a broken leg, dire to the deep
drifts which were encountered* Xt baa required 7 tons of hay
to feed this part of the herd since they were brought it, and
79 tons were fed at Slough Oreeac and the Buffalo Para during
Bear tracks were seen at Headquarters on
Earch ZZr&+ end two bears sere seen outside of the ?*ar*:,
rt&MBt JVmtana. Ho signs of bears have been reported from
the upper parfe*
ffipf?r« About 280 <L&w were fed during the month,
but a&ay did not cone in for hey* loe dead ones were fbund
noad the feeding grounds at Oardiaer, and two died near Head-
quarters, all apparently from natural causes, Thm deer arc
still leoMsg f&irly well, but they, like the eDc, are beginning
to shew the effects of the long winter.
Antelope. She antelope seemed to be standing the
severe winter as well, if not better, than the elk and deer*
About 250 were fed, a few still ranged outside of the park
near Electric, Montana* One died near Gardiner from natural
JHfc. She clic are &>ldii%- their cam fully ad ;wll
as *>''iH be ea£>eeted undor thu aevtx v ^ winter ounditioiis of
Karc!i f though they are showing the effects of the long hard
wist wrffiaftSBl fbod, «*** &amv*tiy speaking they
Mi in poor condition a* ooH%)ai>ed winjh dovuml winters, the
feeding was fcept up as seemed neeeusar*, in proportion to the
nanibei'e that frequented the Yir.inity of the food grounds,
with due consideration to the conservation ox nay t&at it
might last through the foodie seaeou. |M cona *ere fed at
Gardiaer and 31 ton* at Headquarters, ooatly to to* elfc, the
racafoer taking the hay varying during *he amtn IMS JU300 to
2BQ0. A total of 49 elk, cows and calves died at the iftomoth
feeding grounds during March, ax& 225, also mostly cows and
calves, died at the Gardiner feeding grounds, ihoee that re-
mained farther up on the range eeemed to have fared better,
ae tat fee dead ones are reported, *nis ie probably dae to
the fact that ealy the strong oa*« remained shore and net to
the su/*ply of formre tfhiek they nave oad«
Beports indieate that the Oallatin herd of ells: are
wintering veil* Ho reports were reoeived of the southern
herd during toe auonth,
X sin unofficially inferaed that the proposition of
the B< ■• Biological Survey aua the itorest Service to assist
in ftwot&m the el* heras in and adjacent to the par it has
kMB ^sjo&oned on account of the resignation of ceoe of tne
officials tf *• forest Service aad lack oi* sufficient assist-
ance to do this extra wortu In the eaee of tin* northern herd,
hewwver, it is possible that the rangers of the forest Service
wfao have beea eseaged on the apseial wor* of protecting the
elk outside of the pari: in the Abaaroka national forest, in
cooperation with our park racers, may he able to aa&e a care-
ful estimate of the mashers, without going M the exncnse of
a a&rafui count*
Sfcianaat of ela. ffinaty-eighfc elk, - 10 tails and
8&?ic«JS, - all feiQ and shiree-year-olda, *ore shipped to
Jazpe? i-aste, Canada, by the Canadian Oavariraent Paries j)epart-
meat an jdU Jsiieven §i uieue died enroate. One male
aad one feiaale elk were shi ped by express, erated, to the
Agricultural ikeporijacat Station of the atatc, at ooaora,
fexas, on Jiartfh £8th, to replace toss that died earoute on
their ehipnisat of ?ebraarytaoL i-ws aaale elk «rere shipped to
Ssa Antonio, Zens, on March Sod* She advisability of dipping
elk so late in the season is questionable, tat is probably
warranted under the unusual conditions of this season, as it
wa& he the means of saving a few animals that might otherwise
dle« Shore are tat one or two possible shipwents in view.
Mountain Sheas* Bleven mountain sheep were f*d
with the elk In Gardiner Caxyou. "They seem to be In usual
Xgeje.. Ho noose were noted In reports reoelred
for the month of Mar*.
Hangers Henry Jiderson and
Court Dewing pet In moot of their time daring the month hunt-
ing oarniworous animals, ueing for the purpose firearms,
trepe end poison* Dewing killed 8 coyotes, 1 wolf, end 2
foxes, in the territory en the northeast seetion of the park.
Anderson killed 1 eoyoto and eight wolves, (7 of then yens;
paps taken from dens) in the Blaoktail District, Ranger
Harr killed two coyotes near rower Tails* Bpeolal efforts
will be made during April to leeate and destroy a few more
woItos that hare been in evidence in the Blaaktail snf
g y«f«n»- Grass was noted to>be growing In bare
places at the lower altitudes en March 19th 9 but has not
grown in sufficient snount to rellere the shortage of forage
to any appreciable extent.
inter birds were in eridenoe, including ducks,
crows, nsgplcs, •*gl«t eparrows. Claries crows and ousels.
There are 20 to 90 trorapter swans wintering in the outlet
of Yellowstone Lake where there is constantly open water;
also 2 wintering en Lewis Hirer near the bridge, and 2 on
leehler Iilrer. In addition to those wintering here, new-
eeners appeared aa follows: Mallards and rosy finches,
March 6th; nutcrackers, isveh 7th* horned larks, March 12th*
Birds wintering along the Gardiner Hirer begem to leare
winter quarters; dippers, or water ousels, March **; Barrow
golden-eye. March 10th. Migratory birds first appeared,
intermediate Junoo, Marsh 12th; killdecr plow. March lBth;
red-wing blackbird, laareh 13th; pink-sided Junoo, March 19th|
ilson snipe, March 20th| also robin; bluebird, March ?lst,
fire days later; red-tail hawk, March 51st.
Miscellaneous notes on park ani als, indicating
seasonal changes: It became noticeable on March 13th that
the elk on the feeding grounds were getting fewer. On March
19th, elk horns began to fall freely. Mountain sheep begem
to shed their wool, March 15th. On March 12 th, the horn butts
on male deer fawns began to swell; and ten days later on the
old bucks. March 25th, the last mule deer cast his horns.
March 17th, woodohuoks cane out again, after their first
appearance on February 5th; ground squirrels appeared on the
sens date, the 17th.
Sme of those seasonal mrtfmnts ^ero early, but
the Majority wer© late. Reckoning from theee data the sea
Is tedjtf ton days later than the average*
tfishix^ has been good In Gardiner Hirer below the
Haanoth Hot Springs, and was enjoyed by residents*
P ff^t^atio n of flams*
$he usual patrols were aada during the month in
the interests of game protection. One ranger patrolled the
Gallatin Qmm Preserve adjoining the park on the north* Jnat
vest of the Yellowstone Biver. Sorest Baflgere patrolled the
Ahsarote Hatienal Forest to movent peaehiug among the elk
that are wintering outside of the park*
Arrests p pj nekton* of the 1»»
Ho arrests were znad*. On two oooasions evidence
was noted that indicated that some of the boys lining at
Headquarters were asking a practice of hunting elk teeth, art
it even looted as if thoy had palled the teeth of elk that
were not dead bat about to die, fhey were asssmbled and
given a good lecture, and their parents notified that the
boys would hare to obey the park rules carefully or suffer
the eoaaesaenoes provided by the regulations, and no farther
trouble was given by them.
So accidents were reported during the a»nth«
She following persons visited the park on asocial
Hiss Elisabeth toisehman, of the Park Curio Stop,
and her father, returned to the park on March 10th, from several
A post office inspector visited the park officially
on March 11th.
Mr, fg II, Klefcols, of the Yellowstone Park 1?rana-
portatton Company and Hotel Cowpawy, visited the var* March
3 to 6, and made arrangements for beginning work in the
Qonpany's automobile shop* Several meohanies followed on
Mr* Howard Hays, of the Yellowstone Park Canada
Company, visited tha park in connection with the development
work at Manoth Camp am March 16-17, and again en March £3-25,
M9*toM - totvurei*
She only notion picture representative in the park
during the month of liarch was Hr* J* A. Ramsey, representing
1ST. C. 1* Chester , of 120 • 41st St*, Hew York, who oarae in
on the 12th and is still here* iKr* Ramsey has bean engaged
in getting good motion pictures of wild animals and tha taae
buffalo and expects to visit the geyser basins and the grand
Canyon soon* Mr* Chestsr f s permit is not
Frm picture shows were held weakly,
in the Post ftxehange auditorium, for the benefit of park em-
ployees ami the residents of Gardiner, the espouses being paid
through a cooperative arrangement*
Christian Science services were held every Sunday
afternoon* Regular church services were omitted during tha
month, as tto Rev* Pritcfaard, who supplies them, was on
X* BMBBQPCa AID RB1IITTAOTS8.
The usual report of monies collected, due and trans-
mitted, on tha regular blank forms, is inclosed herewith, to-
Kther with money orders and draft for the amount remitted, -
26*70* i lease acknowledge receipt*
■m a MMur
la ting Superintendent.
national i ark Service,
Department of the Interior,
Washington, D* C*
Address correspondence to
"Official in Charge"
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Yellowstone Park, T .7yo • , Msxe April 1, 1920.
IATHSR CONDITIONS- TH HOT
YELLOWS! , WYO.
■The most remarkable feature of the month's weather was the
cold wave of the 5th- 6th, with a minimum temperature of 25" below
zero on the morning of the 6th. This is the lowest March temperature
of record during 33 years; the previous lowest, -24" , was recorded
in 1906. The temperature as a whole averaged C below normal.
The total snowfall was 20.0 inches, or a little more than the
average March. There were 17 days with a measui able amount of
sonw, and the record shows but one March with a greater number of
days with snow, that being 18 days in 1907.
The total wind movement was slightly below normal, but
maximum velocity of 40 miles per hour recorded on the 30th, has
hs± been exceeded but once in March, but it has been equal three
The sunshine was deficient, being only 45^, of/the possible.
E. E. Fletcher,